1. What is an immune checkpoint?
Immune CheckPoints correspond to a set of proteins regulating the immune system, in particular in the stages of recognition of the antigen by T lymphocytes. Depending on the nature of the antigen (normal or pathogenic), the signals sent by these immune control proteins are either activators or inhibitors of the immune response. These proteins, therefore, play an essential role in self-tolerance and the protection of the host from cellular damage by preventing the runaway and the propagation of the immune response during a pathogenic aggression.
The cancer cells use and divert this regulatory process to their benefit. They indeed escape immune defence by presenting oncogenic proteins recognized as normal by T lymphocytes. This stratagem, therefore, allows tumour cells to survive and proliferate freely.
Suppressive immune checkpoint pathways blockade using anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies
2. Mechanism & therapeutic strategy
The immune escape mechanism is now better known. Studies have shown that tumours are able to active suppressive immune control pathways in order to decrease the immune response against them. Scientists, therefore, investigated whether blocking the main immune control pathways could lead to effective anti-tumour immunity. Early preclinical research indicated that blockade antibodies of the immune checkpoint molecule CTLA-4 resulted in positive anti-tumour immune responses in murine cancer models. CTLA-4 was the first immune checkpoint molecule to be identified as a clinical target.
Currently,, the most advanced therapeutic agents in clinical trials are those targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1 / PD-L1. Research continues to identify and produce ever more effective new targets.
Interchim® supports this research with offering, in addition to a wide range of target antibodies and proteins, a set of bulk format In vivo functional antibodies to important checkpoint markers.
|Leinco Technologies manufacture a whole battery of functional quality antibodies In vivo, some of them are specific of the immune checkpoint proteins.|
|PD-1 (CD279)||PD-L1 (B7-H1)||PD-L2 (CD273)||CTLA-4 (CD152)|
|4-1BB (CD137)||CD28||CD80 (B7-1)||CD86 (B7-2)|
These antibodies called Gold™ and Platinum™ according to their degree of purity are produced by following a Leinco Technologies’s proprietary method. In vivo Platinum ™ antibodies have the highest quality specifications for purity, endotoxins, aggregates and extractable protein A. Each of antibody is also free of pathogens and tested by the pathogen profile of IDEXX Impact I PCR on mice. To learn more and discover all the references, do not hesitate to consult our dedicated page.
Absolute Antibody dis developing recombinant antibodies, which can be reformatted into different species, isotypes and subtypes. This approach makes it possible to better control the performance of antibodies In vivo according to experimental models while being able to evolve to therapeutic applications in humans. All of these antibodies are grouped under the VIVOPURE label.